Understanding historical and current racism and discrimination is important part of accepting that racial prejudice exists and working to reduce it but it’s clear these topics need to be handled with care. Evidence-based prejudice reduction approaches are presented that teachers and school administrators can use to improve school culture and climate. Anti-racist teaching involves teaching pupils about historic and current events rooted in prejudice and discrimination, such as the Holocaust or the Slave Trade. Instead, reinforce children's natural curiosity, and explain the distinction between noticing social differences and being prejudiced. Shaun R. Harper is a professor in the Graduate School of Education at the University of Pennsylvania, founder and executive director of the Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education, and president of the Association for the Study of Higher Education. Print version: page 40. More than 500 studies of intergroup relations are reviewed to develop recommendations to help educators choose effective programs to reduce racial prejudice and stereotyping in their schools. Recognize holidays and events relating to a variety of cultural and ethnic groups. If these are the basis of meaningful education, then learning how to reduce prejudice is surely a … Too few of us were ever afforded opportunities to discuss or meaningfully learn about race in our K–12 schools, undergraduate studies, or doctoral programs. Studies have found that over 8 weeks, the empathy scores of children in ‘Jigsaw classrooms’ increased and intergroup relationships improved. This chapter will outline and discuss several techniques that teachers can use in their efforts to prevent or reduce prejudice in students. pupils must not feel they are forced to take part; and. Providing examples of majority-group members working to end racism; Pointing out similarities between groups; Avoiding stereotyping or suggesting that all members of a group have the same experience. However, in doing so, they should draw on the wealth of evidence on how best to do this. Things You Can Do in the Schools: Reducing Racial Prejudice to Reducing Racism. In this blog I suggest a way forward through two simple policies that can increase access to education and housing for young people while reducing…, Writing “Bridging the Word Gap at Transition: The Oxford Language Report 2020”, I couldn’t help reflecting back on my own time in the classroom and what I did (or didn’t do) to support my pupils’ vocabulary. (Contains 3 tables.) Loving-kindness meditation —a practice that involves consciously sending out compassionate thoughts toward others—may also help. When children were told by a teacher to be more inclusive, it had a positive effect on their attitudes towards their competitors. School grounds can be the site of bullying and violent behaviour between students. Those in the control group who read the same material but are not instructed to empathise do not change their scores as much. Many schools adopt such a method, but little work has tested how efficient it is in beating prejudice.Making inclusion the normIn a study we just published, my colleagues and I carried out an experiment with 229 seven to 11-year-olds to explore this further. Institutional racism doesn’t just affect adults but children in K-12 schools as well. Some pupils may have a vested interest in stopping racism and, as such, may be able to work to help bring an end to racist practices. Anti-racist teaching involves teaching pupils about historic and current events rooted in prejudice and discrimination, such as the Holocaust or the Slave Trade. Nontheless, if you use cases of bias as a vehicle for education, it is quite possible to reduce students' prejudice over time. Eliminating Racism in the Classroom by Richard Morgan, D'Youville College "It is your responsibility to change society if you think of yourself as an educated person." When people read about another person’s experience of being discriminated against under instructions to ‘imagine how the person feels’, their empathy scores increase and prejudice scores decrease. Form a group of interested students to start a club related to the issue. Eliminating Racism in the Classroom by Richard Morgan, D'Youville College "It is your responsibility to change society if you think of yourself as an educated person." This article offers a definition of prejudice and then reviews the literature on relevant theories of its development and methods to identify and map it. View our, my research on the under-representation of GRT pupils in higher education, ’The role of Intercultural education in schools and communities’. Anecdotes from families, research studies, and discrimination lawsuits all reveal that children of color face bias in schools. Multicultural education involves explicitly teaching about the history and culture of specific groups. Understanding Prejudice offers an extensive list online of many such books (see Resources). Though we can draw only limited conclusions from this uncontrolled, small-scale ‘experiment’, it does illustrate how this type of exercise, where people experience discrimination themselves, could potentially develop empathy and make people less likely to be prejudiced towards others in the future. We were most interested in what might happen if a pupil’s peer group urged them to exclude those who were in the opposing team in the drawing competition, but the school stepped in and told the children to behave inclusively. 4 Powerful Ways to Reduce Racism and Discrimination in Schools It’s hard to maintain professionalism when you’re dealing with students who present challenging behaviors. “Racist and anti-immigration views held by children,” warned a recent headline in The Guardian, reporting the results of a survey of nearly 6,000 British schoolchildren conducted by the charity Show Racism the Red Card. But the “bad news” is that kids can easily pick up prejudice from society at large unless parents do something about it. A few months ago, during my research on the under-representation of GRT pupils in higher education (for Kings College London), a young Romany Gypsy told me about her experience of school. Teachers and children must work together to develop a harmonious multicultural environment in British schools. Empathy: asks someone to imagine their life as if they were part of the other group. The evidence on the effectiveness of anti-racist teaching is mixed. ‘Contact’ with other groups has long been shown to improve intergroup attitudes. This may help explain why the…, This blog was written by CfEY’s newest recruit, Baz Ramaiah The COVID-crisis has badly damaged the long-term life prospects of young people and the government must act to help them. People who are more educated express fewer stereotypes and prejudice in general. 1 ... schools or communities for example. By the age of seven, children are aware of the groups to which they belong, and prefer being a member of an “in-group”, such as fans of a certain football team or members of a different ethnic group. Among the most powerful influences on young people’s behaviour are norms: the rules, stated or otherwise, which govern society. In 2013, researchers investigated whether this contact and social connectedness with others leading to sharing in cultural activities could reduce prejudice. If you fail to prepare, prepare to fail. Look at the culture of the whole school and consider: what your school is required to do under the Public Sector Equality Duty creating a school culture that reflects safety and inclusivity At first, she made the brown-eyed children the ‘superior’ group, favouring those children and pointing out mistakes and weaknesses of the blue-eyed ‘inferior’ group. However, new evidence suggests that schools which work hard to promote an inclusive environment can help curb negative attitudes between groups of children in the classroom. Boy being builied via Monkey Business Images/www.shutterstock.com, self-identity is reliant upon our membership of flourishing social groups, participants suggesting they would verbally bully. argue that multicultural education ‘may increase the likelihood that children will place individuals in to rigid categories, thereby…increasing stereotypes.’. This could include events that specifically celebrate other cultures or groups, for example, ‘Black History Month’ and ‘Gypsy, Roma and Traveller (GRT) history month’. The researchers discuss that learning about racism can potentially reduce prejudice as it provides an alternative explanation (i.e. After the lessons, ‘European American’ children who learnt about racism held more positive and less negative attitudes towards African Americans compared to the control group. Whether you’re in a school or an office, one of the best ways to help reduce racism is to hire a racially diverse staff. Acknowledging obvious differences is not the problem -- placing negative value judgments on them is. Here are some of the ways that parents can help reduce negative bias in … New York: Teachers College Press, 1999. School charters emphasising equality and inclusion that are endorsed by teachers and make clear there will be genuine consequences for those who flaunt the rules, should be encouraged. In the past, it’s been shown that this leads to participants suggesting they would verbally bully a member of an opposing team, if members of their own team in the competition asked them to. PhD Candidate, Social Developmental Psychology, Goldsmiths, University of London. One experiment compared the effect of different history lessons’ content on children’s attitudes to ‘African Americans’. Unlearning prejudice and developing social awareness is a lifelong process, and it is unrealistic to expect instant results with young children. Form a diversity task force or club. The Delors Report (UNESCO, 1996) describes four pillars of education: learning to learn, learning to do, learning to be, and learning to live together. Teaching candidates in the Rutgers Alternate Route Program are exploring the phenomena of Stereotype Threat, a theory developed by social psychologists Claude Steele and Joshua Aronson to describe the anxiety students experience when confronted with situations in which they fear confirming negative stereotypes about their social groups, especially members of groups believed to be … This matches what other researchers have found: one of the most powerful influences on the development of children’s attitudes, are children themselves. discrimination) for the social status inequalities which children are frequently aware of. 9. 2. Teachers can use a storybook as a way to introduce and illustrate these difficult topics for younger school age children. October 2011, Vol 42, No. Additionally, researchers consistently emphasise the importance of highlighting similarities between different groups, avoiding stereotypes and building on existing connections or friendship between different groups. Allow them to do so by creating an after school club or similar school-related group dedicated specifically to reducing racism. The study found that only condition 1, where participants felt a social connection and were free to choose whether they participated in a cultural activity, reduced participants’ implicit racial bias against Latino Americans. Introduction. In a study we just published, my colleagues and I carried out an experiment with 229 seven to 11-year-olds to explore this further. the explicit programs to reduce racial prejudice in schools are an important – albeit largely indirect – legacy of the Brown v. Board decision, and therefore a careful review of their effectiveness and promise is necessary to guide both future There is also evidence that co-operative learning: bringing different groups together to work on a project, can increase perspective taking and thus, empathy. In the first section, we discuss the invitational method proposed by Haberman (1994) that is intended to facilitate teachers' self-awareness with regard to their own prejudice. In this case, the children were asked to imagine that they were going to compete in a drawing competition. However, it also creates some important stipulations: Despite many advances in equal rights during the past century, in recent months divisions in society feel evermore apparent. Other techniques, such as education or discussion between social groups, can also be used to help reduce prejudice and discrimination, The best approach is likely to involve a blend of different activities and a well embedded culture of inclusivity to avoid activities feeling tokenistic. This review is not the ﬁrst to pose this ques-tion. By Tori DeAngelis. Prejudices are preconceived and ingrained ideas and opinions about others. (Baldwin, p.190) This quote from James Baldwin reflects the duty and moral obligation of modern educators to attempt to eliminate racism in today's classrooms. What works to reduce prejudice and discrimination? While teachers’ and staffs’ primary responsibility is to teach academic content, challenging behaviors can … Conditions of Group Contact to Reduce Conflict . The next week the roles were reversed. In turn, increased empathy is linked to ‘prosocial’ behaviour. Medical schools are yet another well respected and sought-after academic institutions replete with racial prejudice and stereotypes. Part one of this blog described how children as young as three display prejudice and presented a series of research findings regarding how children might develop this prejudice. Write an article and join a growing community of more than 117,600 academics and researchers from 3,794 institutions. 1. proposes that these negative side effects could be mitigated by: Empathy training aims to help children understand the experiences and emotions of others’. This suggests that nonjudgmental awareness, even when not specifically focused on reducing prejudice, can help reduce unconscious biases. Going forward, teachers can adopt an anti-bias lens, a form of social-emotional learning that respects diversity and challenges sexism, racism, ableism, classism, and other societal prejudices. Researchers believe that fostering genuine relationships with members of ‘outgroups’ and thus taking part in the ‘cultural activities’ of another group can reduce implicit bias. Activities for Teaching about Prejudice and Discrimination - Use these activities to discuss different areas of prejudice and ways to work toward appreciation. An inclusive and open learning or working environment that consists of multiple ethnicities can help promote understanding and tolerance. Given these practical objec-tives, it is natural to ask what has been learned about the most effective ways to reduce preju-dice. That’s good advice for students taking exams. This is problematic because viewing group members as highly similar (a sense that ‘they’re all the same’) has been linked to higher prejudice. The class that took part in the activity had less prejudiced beliefs and were more likely to be willing to spend time with a group of other race children than the control group who did not experience the activity. For this group, effects on interest in Mexican cultural activities and attitudes toward immigrants maintained at a 6 month follow up. Having a friend from another group may also remove barriers to empathy and caring, which in turn decreases prejudice. Educators and policy makers are learning from past experience as they devise programs to prevent or reduce prejudice and discrimination (see Banks, 2009 edited book on multicultural education). Jane Elliot’s 1968 controversial ‘classroom experiment’ is sometimes considered an example of empathy training. This avoids them hypothesising that a particular group tends to have lower status or poorer outcomes due to some inherent or biological trait. In 2020, the sudden arrival of COVID-19 left the government without enough time to prepare an adequate alternative to GCSE and A-Level examinations. Do not minimize or pretend not to see differences in race, religion, disability, or other attributes. At the root of many cases of bullying are stereotypes, or generalisation about a group of people, and prejudice, an unfavourable opinion about a group based on such stereotypes. Such rules exist within children’s groups: for example, to share or not to share, how to dress, or who can be included in an activity. The ‘Jigsaw classroom’ technique involves children of different races, classes, gender or nationality working together co-operatively on academic projects. Much of the evidence within this strand of research suggests that, on a day-to-day basis, children do not hold negative attitudes towards children outside of these groups, and are more worried about not being excluded themselves. Stanford University researcher Carol S. 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